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Speculum Style Sheet
Speculum Style Sheet (Rev. October 2014)

Most of the prescriptions that follow are concerned with citation style. For matters not discussed here, authors should refer to recent issues of the journal. For usage issues not found in Speculum, authors should consult the 17th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style (Chicago, 2017). The general principle is to provide readers with complete information in as brief a citation as proper form allows. The guiding principle for citations is maximum clarity for the reader. When in doubt, the author should err on the side of providing more, rather than less, information. The author is responsible for the accuracy of all quotations and citations, which should be verified before the manuscript is submitted.

Primary sources

Models for the citation of classical and medieval works are the following:

1. Medieval Author, Opus 2.4.1, ed. Modern Editor (City, 1990), 135.

2. Medieval Author, Opus 2.4.1, ed. Editor, 135.

3. Medieval Author, Opus 2.4.1.

4. Medieval Author, Opus 2.4.1, line 5.

5. Medieval Author, Opus 2.4.1, p. 135.

6. Matt. 5.21; 1 Cor. 2.12.

Note 1 is a standard first citation. The subdivisions of the medieval work follow the title without intervening punctuation, in descending order, separated by periods. For example, Opus is divided into books, sections, and chapters, and the sample citation should be read as book 2, section 4, chapter 1.

Once the edition of a work has been provided in the first citation, subsequent references are shortened as in note 2, or even more as in notes 3, 4, or 5. The nature of the work and its editorial history will determine which version is required.

Note 6 shows standard biblical citations, which likewise use periods as the divider between subdivisions, in this instance between chapter and verse.

If the reader might have difficulty deciphering this system as it applies to a given work, the reference should be spelled out in full.

Secondary works

Models for the citation of secondary works are the following:

1. John Doe, Book Title (City, 1995), 27–31.

2. Jane Smith, “Article Title,” Journal 24 (1992): 2–14.

3. Doe, Short Title, 76; Smith, “Short Title,” 9.

The abbreviations “p.” and “pp.” are not used unless necessary to disambiguate from volumes, lines, etc. Provide inclusive pages rather than “f.” or “ff.” References to page and note take the form “123 n. 1.”

Article notes: Book citations

Do not substitute initials for an author’s given names. If the author uses initials, they should not be set solid: “J. R. R. Tolkien.”

If more than one location is given for the place of publication, it is usually sufficient to cite only the first location in the list. The conventional English form of place-names should be given (“Turin,” not “Torino”; “Munich,” not “München”).

Use US postal-code abbreviations for states (AK, AL, etc.); use “UK” for any of the regions of the United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland) and to disambiguate cities of the same name: Cambridge, MA; Cambridge, UK. Use state and country abbreviations only when the location may be unclear. Always include “DC” in references to the District of Columbia.

Exception: Book review citations

Dates alone are sufficient in references to books within a review: “Derek Pearsall’s John Lydgate (1970) . . .”


Use arabic numerals for volume, part, and section numbers of journals, for volume numbers and other subdivisions in a series, for multivolume works, and for subdivisions of classical and medieval texts. Use a slash instead of a period to separate the parts of printed works: Speculum 88/3.

Use roman numerals when the original work uses them for page numbers and when a library uses them for manuscript shelf marks in its collection.

Simplest form

Susan Reynolds, Fiefs and Vassals: The Medieval Evidence Reinterpreted (Oxford, 1994), 18–19, 92–93, 118–19.

Lawrence Warner, The Lost History of “Piers Plowman”: The Earliest Transmission of Langland’s Work (Philadelphia, 2011), 67.

Later editions and reprints

Frank Barlow, The Feudal Kingdom of England, 1042–1216, 5th ed. (London, 1999), 224–26.

Charles H. Beeson, A Primer of Medieval Latin: An Anthology of Prose and Poetry (Washington, DC, 1925; repr. 1986), 25–27.

Multiple volumes

Max Manitius, Geschichte der lateinischen Literatur des Mittelalters, 3 vols. (Munich, 1911–31), 1:78. [The citation is to volume 1, page 78.]

Monographs in a series

Arno Borst, Die Katharer, Schriften der Monumenta Germaniae Historica 12 (Stuttgart, 1953), 112–15. [Series information is sometimes essential for locating books and ought to be included in such cases; the series should always be included when there is a series number.]

Edited or translated works

Hildegard of Bingen, The Letters of Hildegard of Bingen, trans. Joseph L. Baird and Radd K. Ehrman, 3 vols. (New York, 1994–2004), 1:34–35. [Here the abbreviation “trans.” means "translated by” and does not change when there is more than one translator.]

Emil Friedberg, ed., Corpus iuris canonici, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1879–81), 2:lxiv. [Here the abbreviation “ed.” means “editor”; the plural is “eds.”]

Georges Duby, Love and Marriage in the Middle Ages, trans. Jane Dunnet (Chicago, 1994), ii, 25. [Here the comma indicates pages ii and 25.]

Foreign titles

In Latin titles capitalize only the first word, proper nouns, and proper adjectives. In French, Italian, and Spanish titles capitalize only the first word and proper nouns. Follow the prevailing rules for the given language in the capitalization of other foreign titles. Titles in non-Roman alphabets are to be transliterated as well.

Titles in languages other than classical and medieval Latin and Greek, French, Italian, German, and Spanish may be translated. The translation follows the title in square brackets and is not italicized; only the first word and proper nouns and adjectives are capitalized.

Boris Poršnev, Feodalism i narodnye massy [Feudalism and the masses] (Moscow, 1964), 22–50.

Subsequent references:

Reynolds, Fiefs and Vassals, 97.

Use short titles rather than “op. cit.” “Ibid.” may be used for successive references to the same work within a single note; it may also be used for a work cited in the immediately preceding note when only one work is listed in the prior note.

If the work by Reynolds is cited frequently throughout the article—and is the only work by that author cited—the first reference may include the indication “hereafter cited as Reynolds.” Subsequent references take the form “Reynolds, 97.”


Do not abbreviate journal titles. One of the few exceptions is PMLA, where the abbreviation has become the main title of the journal.

When an article is cited more than once, give full page references in the first citation; otherwise it is acceptable to cite only the relevant page(s).

Anne Walters Robertson, “The Mass of Guillaume de Machaut in the Cathedral of Reims,” in Plainsong in the Age of Polyphony, ed. Thomas Forest Kelly, Cambridge Studies in Performance Practice 2 (Cambridge, UK, 1991), 100–139, at 135.

Anna Carlotta Dionisotti, “On Bede, Grammars, and Greek,” Revue bénédictine 92 (1982): 129.

Robert Bourgeois, “La théorie de la connaissance intellectuelle chez Henri de Gand,” Revue de philosophie, n.s. 6 (1936): 238–59.

Subsequent references:

Robertson, “Mass,” 106.

Bourgeois, “La théorie,” 245.

Manuscripts and archival material

Both in the text and in the notes the abbreviation “MS” (plural “MSS,” no period) is used only when it precedes a shelf mark. Cite the shelf mark according to the practice of the given library. Folio numbers should include a recto/verso reference, abbreviated and written on the line, not as a superscript. The abbreviation of “folio” is “fol.” (plural “fols.”). Do not use the plural form for inclusive references within a single folio: fol. 22rb—va.

The first reference to a manuscript should give the place-name, the name of the library, and the shelf mark:

Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, MS lat. 4117, fols. 108v–145r.

Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, MS Vat. lat. 6055, fols. 151r–228v.

Subsequent references:

BnF lat. 4117, fol. 108r. [If the context allows, “lat. 4117” may be sufficient.]

Vat. lat. 6055, fol. 151r.

References to archival material should give the place-name, the name of the archive, the institution, and the shelf mark:

Venice, Archivio di Stato, S. Lorenzo di Venezia, B.21.

Ancient and medieval works

For canonical collections, registers, and other specialized texts, the prevailing abbreviations and style of citation should be used. In citing standard editions of poetry it is often sufficient to cite line numbers without page references. However, when citing a particular edition, page references may be employed.

Bede, Historia ecclesiastica 2.3, ed. and trans. Bertram Colgrave and R. A. B. Mynors (Oxford, 1969), 142–45.

Dante, Inferno 11.13–14, trans. Mark Musa, Dante’s Inferno (Bloomington, 1995), 89.

The Battle of Maldon, lines 42–61, ed. D. G. Scragg (Manchester, 1981), 58–59.

Marie de France, Le Chaitivel, lines 231–32, ed. Jean Rychner, Les Lais de Marie de France, Les Classiques Français du Moyen Âge 93 (Paris, 1966; repr. 1971).

Subsequent references:

Bede, Historia ecclesiastica 3.16, pp. 262–63. [Note: the abbreviations “pp.” here and “p.” in the next two examples are used to disambiguate the reference.]

Inferno 3.58–60, p. 35.

Battle of Maldon, lines 312–19, p. 67.

Le Chaitivel, lines 9–180.

Recurring references to primary sources may sometimes be treated economically within the text.

Series and collections of primary sources

The abbreviations CCCM and CCSL (Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio Mediaeualis and Series Latina), EETS (Early English Text Society), MGH (Monumenta Germaniae Historica; see for sections of the MGH), and PL and PG (Migne’s Patrologia Latina and Graeca) need not be explained. It is also usually not necessary to provide publication information for quotations from the PL and PG. The names of other collections and series should be given in full when first cited. The volume number and page number are separated by a colon, with no space between the elements.

PL 123:347.

MGH SS 13:229. [Scriptores, volume 13, page 229.]

MGH Capit. 1:263. [Leges, Capitularia regum Francorum, volume 1, page 263.]

MGH Conc. 2.1:131 [Leges, Concilia, volume 2, part 1, page 131.]

Full citation of an edited work in a series:

Alcuin, Vita Willibrordi, ed. Wilhelm Levison, MGH SS rer. Merov. 7 (Hannover, 1920), 113–41.

Other matters

1. Modern authors: The first mention of a modern author in the text should include the given name (or initials, if that is the author’s preferred form).

2. Notes: Notes should be succinct and should be confined to material necessary to support assertions in the text. Footnotes should be avoided in reviews.

3. French place-names: French place-names containing “Saint” are normally spelled out, and the hyphen is essential: “Saint-Denis.”

4. Italics and quotation marks: Isolated expressions and words in foreign languages should be italicized, but a foreign phrase taken from a specific source should be in roman type within quotation marks.

• Short quotations should be in roman type within quotation marks, but quotations of more than a hundred words of prose or of more than two lines of poetry should be treated as block quotations (typed double-spaced and indented, without quotation marks).

• Single quotation marks are reserved for quotations within quotations.

• Block quotations should be set indented, as extracts. Both the original language and English translation (if provided) should be set in roman.

5. Scholarly reference terms: Words and abbreviations such as “et al.,” “ibid.,” “e.g.,” “i.e.,” and “c.” (circa) should not be italicized. The only exception is “[sic].” Note that “cf.” means “compare” and should not be used when “see” or “see also” is the accurate expression. [Note: both “e.g.” and “i.e.” are followed by a comma.]

6. Dates: Use the form “1390s,” not “1390’s” or spelled out. Centuries should be spelled out; the adjectival form requires a hyphen, as in “twelfth-century manuscript.” Use “c.” for approximate dates: “c.1200” (no blank space follows “c.”). Separate the termini of spans of years by an en dash: “1200–1500” (but “from 1200 to 1500”).

7. Capitalization: “Middle Ages” is capitalized, but “medieval” is not. “Church” is generally lowercased, unless it is part of the official name of a denomination or building, or unless it refers to the universal Church, led by Christ. “Bible” is capitalized, but “biblical” is not. Lowercase devotional genres and other religious works, so “book of hours” and “hours” (but: “the Wharncliffe Hours”). Lowercase liturgical hours such as matins and vespers. Capitals are fine for “Divine Office,” “Office,” “Office of the Dead” and for the names of specific hours, such as “Hours of the Cross,” and prayers, such as “the Lord’s Prayer.” For feasts, use the lowercase form except when the formal name of the feast is being given: “Becket’s translation feast” but “the Feast of the Translation of Thomas Becket” (or just “the Translation of Thomas Becket”). Consult Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th ed. (Springfield, MA, 2003), when in doubt.

8. In a departure from Chicago style, words and names ending in an  unpronounced s (Descartes, François) and classical names of two or more  syllables that end in an eez sound (Euripides, Ganges) form the possessive simply with the addition of an apostrophe: Descartes’ dreams, Euripides’ tragedies.

Art specifications

If an accepted article includes illustrations, the author will be responsible for supplying high-quality TIFF files and permissions to reproduce them in print and online. Specifications are 300 ppi color or grayscale TIFFS for images, 600 ppi for line art (drawings, graphs, maps, etc.). Please supply TIFF images, not JPGs or any other format. Please do not send images embedded into PDF, MSWord, or any other files. Each illustration should be submitted in its own file without a caption; a list of captions should be submitted separately. Images should be submitted at the largest dimensions available for the ppi specified. Images should be uploaded with the final version of an accepted article via Editorial Manager. Please do not use “zip” or other compression tools. Color images will be converted into greyscale for print but processed in color for online publication.
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