Style Sheet (Rev. August 2013)
of the prescriptions that follow are concerned with citation style. For matters
not discussed here, authors should refer to recent issues of the journal. For
usage issues not found in Speculum,
authors should consult the 16th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style (Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
2010). The guiding principle for citations is maximum clarity for the
reader. When in doubt, the author should err on the side of providing more,
rather than less, information. The author is responsible for the accuracy of all
quotations and citations, which should be verified before the manuscript is
for the citation of classical and medieval works are the following:
Medieval Author, Opus 2.4.1, ed. Modern Editor (City: Publisher, 1990),
Medieval Author, Opus 2.4.1, ed. Editor, 135.
Medieval Author, Opus 2.4.1.
Medieval Author, Opus 2.4.1, line 5.
Medieval Author, Opus 2.4.1, p. 135.
Isaiah 59.9; Mark 1.16–18.
1 is a standard first citation. The subdivisions of the medieval work follow
the title without intervening punctuation, in descending order, separated by
periods. For example, Opus is divided
into books, sections, and chapters, and the sample citation should be read as
book 2, section 4, chapter 1.
the edition of a work has been provided in the first citation, subsequent
references are shortened as in note 2, or even more as in notes 3, 4, or 5. The
nature of the work and its editorial history will determine which version is
6 shows standard biblical citations, which likewise use periods as the divider
between subdivisions. Abbreviated forms of the names of books of the Bible may
be used in notes.
the reader might have difficulty deciphering this system as it applies to a
given work, the reference should be spelled out in full.
for the citation of secondary works are the following:
John Doe, Book Title (City: Publisher, 1995), 27–31.
Jane Smith, "Article Title," Journal 24 (1992): 2–14.
Doe, Short Title, 76; Smith, "Short Title," 9.
abbreviations "p." and "pp." are not used unless necessary to disambiguate from
volumes, lines, etc. Provide inclusive pages rather than "f." or "ff." Use
short titles rather than "op. cit." "Ibid." may be used for successive
references to the same work within a single note; it may also be used for a
work cited in the immediately preceding note when only one work is listed in
the prior note.
footnotes: Book citations
not substitute initials for an author’s given names. If the author uses
initials, they should not be set solid: "J. R. R. Tolkien."
ease the finding and acquisition of books and to disambiguate editions,
publishers’ names should be included. If the publisher lists more than one
location, it is usually sufficient to cite only the first location in the list.
The conventional English form of place-names should be given ("Turin," not "Torino";
"Munich," not "München").
US postal-code abbreviations for states (AK, AL, etc.); use "UK" for any of the
regions of the United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland) and
to disambiguate cities of the same name: Cambridge, MA; Cambridge, UK. Use state
and country abbreviations only when the location may be unclear: Bloomington: Indiana
University Press, 2010; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013; Cambridge,
UK: Polity, 2011. Always include "DC" in references to the District of
Book review citations
alone are sufficient in references to books within a review: "Derek Pearsall’s John Lydgate (1970) . . ."
arabic numerals for volume, part,
and section numbers of journals, for volume numbers and other subdivisions in a
series, for multivolume works, and for subdivisions of classical and medieval
roman numerals when the
original work uses them for page numbers and when a library uses them for
manuscript shelf marks in its collection.
Reynolds, Fiefs and Vassals: The Medieval Evidence Reinterpreted
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994), 18–19, 92–93, 118–19.
Warner, The Lost History of "Piers
Plowman": The Earliest Transmission of Langland’s Work (Philadelphia:
University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011), 67.
page references are separated by en dashes, not hyphens; titles within titles
are enclosed in quotation marks.]
editions and reprints
Barlow, The Feudal Kingdom of England, 1042–1216, 5th ed. (London:
Longman, 1999), 224–26.
H. Beeson, A Primer of Medieval Latin: An Anthology of Prose and Poetry
(Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1925; repr. 1986),
Manitius, Geschichte der lateinischen Literatur des Mittelalters, 3
vols. (Munich: C. H. Beck, 1911–31), 1:78. [The citation is to volume 1, page
in a series
Matthew Innes, State
and Society in the Early Middle Ages: The Middle Rhine Valley, 400–1000, Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought, 4th ser.,
47 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 174–75. [Series information
is sometimes essential for locating books and ought to be included in such
cases; the series should always be included when there is a series number.]
or translated works
of Bingen, The Letters of Hildegard of Bingen, trans. Joseph L. Baird and Radd K. Ehrman, 3 vols. (New York:
Oxford University Press, 1994–2004), 1:34–35. [Here the abbreviation "trans."
means "translated by" and does not change when there is more than one
Friedberg, ed., Corpus iuris canonici, 2 vols. (Leipzig: B. Tauchnitz, 1879–81), 2:lxiv. [Here the abbreviation
"ed." means "editor"; the plural is "eds."]
Duby, Love and Marriage in the Middle Ages, trans. Jane
Dunnet (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994), ii, 25. [Here the comma
indicates pages ii and 25.]
Latin titles capitalize only the first word, proper nouns, and proper
adjectives. In French, Italian, and Spanish titles capitalize only the first
word and proper nouns. Follow the prevailing rules for the given language in
the capitalization of other foreign titles.
in languages other than classical and medieval Latin and Greek, French,
Italian, German, and Spanish may be transliterated and translated. The
translation follows the title in square brackets and is not italicized; only
the first word and proper nouns and adjectives are capitalized.
Poršnev, Feodalism i narodnye massy [Feudalism and the masses] (Moscow:
Nauka, 1964), 22–50.
not abbreviate journal titles. One of the few exceptions is PMLA, where the abbreviation has become
the main title of the journal.
an article is cited more than once, give full page references in the first
citation; otherwise it is acceptable to cite only the relevant page(s).
Walters Robertson, "The Mass of Guillaume de Machaut in the Cathedral of Reims,"
in Plainsong in the Age of Polyphony,
ed. Thomas Forest Kelly, Cambridge Studies in Performance Practice 2
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 100–139, at 135.
Bourgeois, "La théorie de la connaissance intellectuelle chez Henri de Gand," Revue
de philosophie, n.s., 6 (1936):
Carlotta Dionisotti, "On Bede, Grammars, and Greek," Revue bénédictine 92
and archival material
in the text and in the notes the abbreviation "MS" (plural "MSS," no period) is
used only when it precedes a shelf mark. Cite the shelf mark according to the
practice of the given library. Folio numbers should include a recto/verso
reference, abbreviated and written on the line, not as a superscript. The
abbreviation of "folio" is "fol." (plural "fols."). Do not use the plural form
for inclusive references within a single folio: fol. 22rb—va.
first reference to a manuscript should give the place-name, the name of the
library, and the shelf mark:
Bibliothèque nationale de France, MS lat. 4117, fols. 108v–145r.
City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, MS Vat. lat. 6055, fols. 151r–228v.
lat. 4117, fol. 108r. [If the context allows, "lat. 4117" may be sufficient.]
lat. 6055, fol. 151r.
archival material should give the place-name, the name of the archive, the
institution, and the shelf mark:
Venice, Archivio di Stato, S. Lorenzo di Venezia, B.21.
and medieval works
canonical collections, registers, and other specialized texts, the prevailing
abbreviations and style of citation should be used. In citing standard editions
of poetry it is often sufficient to cite line numbers without page references.
However, when citing a particular edition, page references may be employed.
Historia ecclesiastica 2.3, ed. and trans. Bertram Colgrave and R. A. B.
Mynors (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969), 142–45.
Inferno 11.13–14, trans. Mark Musa, Dante’s Inferno (Bloomington:
Indiana University Press, 1995), 89.
Battle of Maldon
42–61, ed. D. G. Scragg (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1981), 58–59.
Historia ecclesiastica 3.16, pp. 262–63. [Note: the abbreviations "pp." here
and "p." in the next two examples are used to disambiguate the reference.]
Inferno 3.58–60, p. 35.
312–19, p. 67.
references to primary sources may sometimes be treated economically within the
and collections of primary sources
abbreviations CCCM and CCSL (Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio Mediaeualis and Series Latina), EETS (Early
English Text Society), MGH (Monumenta
Germaniae Historica; see http://www.mgh.de/dmgh/linking/kuerzel for sections of the MGH), and PL and PG
(Migne’s Patrologia Latina and Graeca) need not be explained. It is also
usually not necessary to provide publication information for quotations from the
PL and PG. The names of other collections and series should be given in full
when first cited. The volume number and page or column number are separated by
a colon, with no space between the elements.
MGH SS 13:229. [Scriptores, volume 13, page 229.]
MGH Capit. 1:263. [Leges, Capitularia regum Francorum, volume 1, page 263.]
MGH Conc. 2.1:131 [Leges, Concilia,
volume 2, part 1, page 131.]
citation of an edited work in a series:
Vita Willibrordi, ed. Wilhelm Levison, MGH SS rer. Merov. 7
(Hannover: MGH, 1920), 113–41.
Modern authors: The first mention of a modern author in the text should
include the given name (or initials, if that is the author’s preferred form).
Notes: Notes should be
succinct and should be confined to material necessary to support assertions in
the text. Footnotes should be avoided in reviews.
French place-names: French place-names containing "Saint" are normally
spelled out, and the hyphen is essential: "Saint-Denis."
Italics and quotation marks: Isolated expressions and words in foreign
languages should be italicized, but a foreign phrase taken from a specific
source should be in roman type within quotation marks.
Short quotations should be in roman type within quotation marks, but quotations
of more than a hundred words of prose or of more than three lines of poetry
should be treated as block quotations (typed double-spaced and indented,
without quotation marks).
Single quotation marks are reserved for quotations within quotations.
Block quotations should be set indented, as extracts. Both the original
language and English translation (if provided) should be set in roman.
Scholarly reference terms: Words and abbreviations such as "et
al.," "ibid.," "e.g.," "i.e.," and "ca." (circa) should not be italicized. The
only exception is "[sic]."
Note that "cf." means "compare" and should not be used when "see" or "see also"
is the accurate expression. [Note: both "e.g." and "i.e." are followed by a
Dates: Use the form "1390s," not "1390’s" or spelled out. Centuries
should be spelled out; the adjectival form requires a hyphen, as in "twelfth-century
manuscript." Use "ca." followed by a space for approximate dates: "ca. 1200."
Separate the termini of spans of years by an en dash: "1200–1500" (but "from
1200 to 1500").
Capitalization: "Middle Ages" is capitalized, but "medieval" is not. "Church"
is generally lowercased, unless it is part of the official name of a denomination
or building, or unless it refers to the universal Church. "Bible" is
capitalized, but "biblical" is not. Consult Merriam-Webster’s
Collegiate Dictionary, 11th ed. (Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, 2003),
when in doubt.
an accepted article includes illustrations, the author will be responsible for
supplying high-quality TIFF files and permissions to reproduce them in print
and online. Specifications are 300 ppi color or grayscale TIFFs for images, 600
ppi for line art (drawings, graphs, maps, etc.). Please supply TIFF images, not
JPEGs or any other format. Please do not send images embedded in PDF, MSWord,
or any other files. Each illustration should be submitted in its own file
without a caption; a list of captions should be submitted separately. Images
should be submitted at the largest dimensions available for the ppi specified.
Please supply multiple images on (nonreturnable) disk or equivalent; do not use
"zip" or other compression tools. Color images will be converted into gray scale
for print but processed in color for online publication.